Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Transitions: Building bridges
between your plot islands

Put on your waders because we're going deep into the fiction-writing bulrushes today. I want to talk about one of my favorite micro-topics -- transitions. Actually, maybe it’s quicksand we're wading into, because if your book doesn’t have good transitions, it can sink faster than Janet Leigh’s ’57 Ford in Psycho.

We talk a lot here at TKZ about how important pacing is, and transitions go along way to creating that seamless narrative flow you need as your story shifts in time, location, or point-of view. But here’s the thing: Transitions look easy but they can be tricky to get right.

I think I dwell on transitions so much because I work with a co-author. Kelly and I write our books by talking out the plot then writing alternating chapters. So we don’t have the normal one-brain flow of a unified writing procedure. We always know the purpose of each chapter but often we write with no clear idea of what the links between the chapters will be. Sometimes we just leave red-ink pleas like this for each other --INSERT BETTER ENDING HERE -- then we deal with links in rewrites.

I used to think this was nuts but then I read an interview with Katherine Anne Porter wherein she described her writing process as “creating scene islands” and "building bridges" between them. This gave me great comfort, knowing I could approach writing like a good engineer. Getting my chapters to flow became akin to making the long journey to Key West. 
It also made me think that maybe the island-bridge analogy is useful for those of you who work alone. Because the scene (and by extension chapter) is the terra firma of your plot structure and once you have that solid you can always go back and figure out the best ways to move between those plot clots. A consistent problem I see with critique manuscripts is that the writer often doesn't know where to end a chapter for maximum impact. And that leads to not knowing where to pick up the next one. It is helpful, I think, for writers who struggle with this to concentrate on figuring out what the MAIN PURPOSE of each scene/chapter is, write that plot clot, and then fine tune the bridges later. I've often found that if I just keep telling the story -- even if that means sticking in some really pedestrian transition just to keep moving forward -- that when I go back later in rewrites the perfect transition jumps out at me.

So what exactly is a transition? Well, there are all kinds. Most are straightforward and literal; some are complex and sophisticated. But all good transitions do one thing: They strengthen the internal logic of your story by moving readers from idea to idea, scene to scene, and chapter to chapter with grace and ease. I’m going to move the lens out here and just talk about chapter transitions for now. Here’s some of the ones I’ve identified. Maybe you guys have some others?

Time Transition: This is when you want to move forward (or occasionally backward) in time with your story. These are pretty workmanlike but very useful in that they simply bridge time from your previous scene. (Unless noted, all examples here are from our latest book HEART OF ICE).
Chapter 4
It was nearly three by the time Louis met Flowers at the docks.
Chapter 7
Just over an hour later, Dagliesh had left the headland and was driving west along A1151. (P.D. James)
A word about time stamps. These are the tags you see at chapter beginnings ie "Sunday" or "November 1967" or even just "Later that day." I have a slight bias against time stamps because too often they are a cop-out by a writer who can't figure out how to gracefully weave time changes in the narrative. But sometimes you really need them, especially thriller writers who work on big canvases. If your story is happening at two different times, time stamps help the reader move between the threads, i.e. “New Orleans, 1855” or "Kabul 1999.” In his thriller The Phoenix Apostles, our own Joe Moore (with Lynn Sholes) pin-balls between Mexico, the Bahamas, Paris in present time and Reno, Washington D.C. and even 1899 Chicago. Without his time/location stamps we’d be lost!

Time/location tags can be pretty elaborate. In her complex novel about 9/11, Absent Friends, S.J. Rozan weaves multiple narratives together by using tags like so:
 PHIL'S STORY
Chapter Six
___
The Invisible Man
Steps Between You and the Mirror

This is grad school stuff; Rozan knows what she's doing. Another good use of time stamps is found in Gone Girl. Gillian Flynn must find a way to bring the missing wife Amy to life so Flynn alternates the husband Nick’s present-day narrative with his wife’s diary entries, all clearly marked with time/name stamps.

Point of View Transition: When you move between characters, you could just pick up with the new character's voice. But the flow can be enhanced if you find a way to subtly link them. Here is Louis talking to a police chief about the abandoned hunting lodge where they just found old bones at the end of Chapter 6:

“Nobody comes here. It’s just a broken down old dump,” the chief said.
Louis shook his head. “No, it’s important. It’s his Room 101.”
“What?”
“It’s from Orwell...1984.”
“Never read it.”
Flowers moved away and Louis looked back at the lodge. He could still recall the exact quote from the book – maybe because it reminded him of things in his foster homes he wanted to forget.
The thing in Room 101 is the worst thing in the world.

Chapter 7
There were thousands of them. Small, black jelly-bean creatures crawling around the plastic bin, piggybacking one another to get to that one last shred of meat on the bone.
The beetle larvae were hungry today.
This skull would be ready by nightfall.
Danny Dancer made sure the lid was secure on the bin and left the room.
By using the Orwell "room" quote we tried to lead the reader to the horror of what they were about to see in Danny Dancer's room. Change of POV but bridged with purpose.


Continued Narrative Transition: Here, the story simply continues from what came in previous chapter. The main artistic choice you makeis how much time elapses between scenes. It can be minutes, days or years. Here's John Sandford ending Chapter 14:

“He tried to hang Spivak, for Christ's sake," Lucas said, exasperated.
"That was just part of the job," Harmon said. "You can understand that."
Chapter 15
Lucas couldn't. He got off the phone, breathing hard for a few minutes, backed off the gas.
Sometimes, the continued narrative transition can be deep in a character's pysche. Here’s a nice transition  from Jeff Lindsay’s Dearly Devoted Dexter at the end of chapter 10:
The only reason I ever thought about being human was to be more like him.
Chapter 11
And so I was patient. Not an easy thing, but it was the Harry thing.
The thing with this transition is that you the writer have to make calculated decisions on where to pick up the action  and what you can leave out in the lapse. Say you end a chapter with a cop getting a call at home to come to a  crime scene. Where do you pick up the thread? Do you show him strapping on the gun, getting in the car, walking up to the yellow tape? Or is it more effective to begin the next chapter with "As Nick took his first look at the woman's body, he realized with a start he had seen her face before." Here's exactly such a passage from Val McDermid's splendid A Place of Execution:


End of Chapter 11

The door to the caravan burst open and Grundy stood in the framed doorway, his face the bloodless grey of the Scardale crags. "They've found a body," he said.
Chapter 12
Peter Crowther's body was huddled in the lee of a dry-stone wall three miles due south of Scardale as the crow flies. It was curled in on itself in a fetal crouch, knees tucked up to the chin. The overnight frost that had turned the roads treacherous had given it a sugar coating of hoar.

Action/Reaction Transition: When you have a juicy action scene it can be very effective to break at just after the action peak and open next chapter with a character-focused reaction: Here is the end of our chapter 17, an ambush where Chief Flowers gets shot.

“Clear! We’re clear! Get the ambulance in here now!”
Louis’s heart was finally slowing but he still had to blink to clear his head. Joe was kneeling by Flowers, and from somewhere down the dirt road sirens wailed.
He heard a whimper and looked down at Danny Dancer. The bastard was crying. Curled up like a baby and crying.

 Chapter 18
How could he have been so stupid? He knew that anyone who showed an abnormal interest in a crime scene was someone who needed to be treated with suspicion.
Yet he had allowed Flowers, who was blind to the idea that anyone on his island could be a cold-blooded murderer, walk into a crazy man’s line of fire.
At beginning of Chapter 18, an hour has elapsed and Louis is waiting in the hospital as Flowers lays dying. We chose this transition because the "quiet" moment of Chapter 18 provides relief for the reader after the tension of the ambush, much like letting you catch your breath after the steep drop of a roller coaster. It's all about pacing.

Descriptive Transition: This is another way to alter your pacing. Say you had a explaining-the-case chapter with heavy dialogue between investigators. It's often effective then to go from staccato to legato and open the next chapter with a descriptive passage. And yes, you can use weather -- in moderation!  It is also a good way of telling your readers where we are. I'm of the mind that description transitions should only be used early in your story because they can slow things down too much once your plot-engine gets really chugging. UNLESS, like Joe Moore, you are globe-hopping, and then a well-honed location description can be a sturdy bridge. Here's Elaine Viets in Murder With Reservations, opening chapter 3 with a description that also slips in some protag's backstory:

Helen grew up in St. Louis, where houses were redbrick boxes with forest green shutters. To her, the Coronado Tropic Apartments were wrapped in romance. The Art Deco building was painted a wildly impractical white and trimmed an exotic turquoise. The Corondado had sensuous curves. Palm trees whispered to purple waterfalls of bougainvillea. 

Echo Transition: This is a nifty little device wherein you end a chapter stressing a certain word then use that word again as your bridge to the next. It's like a grace note in music. Lee Child is a master of this and here's the end of his chapter 6:

"You have to do something."
"I will do something. Believe it," Reacher said. "You don't throw my friends out of helicopters and live to tell the tale."
Neagley said, "No, I want you to do something else."
"Like what?"
"I want you to put the old unit back together."
 Chapter 7
The old unit. It had been a typical Army intervention. About three years after the need for it had become blindingly obvious to everyone else, the Pentagon had started to think about it.
The Parallel Transition: This can be really cool but if you whiff on it, it just looks like you're showing off. This is used when you are shifting POV's. It is conscious repetition of an idea, image or symbol between two chapters. Like the Echo Transition, it creates an almost musical connection in the reader's mind, like a good hook in pop music. And it doesn't always come at the end/beginning of chapters. Here's the first paragraph of Chapter 1 of our thriller A Killing Song. We are in the killer's POV in Paris as he watches his next victim:

He couldn't take his eyes off her. The last rays of the setting sun slanted through the stained glass window over her head, bathing her in a rainbow. He knew it was just a trick of light, that the ancient glass makers added copper oxide to make the green, cobalt to make the blue, and real gold to make the red. He knew all of this. But still, she was beautiful.

Here is the opening of chapter 2, from the protagonist's POV as he watches his sister dancing in a Miami Beach nightclub:

I couldn't take my eyes off of her. Maybe it was because I hadn't seen her in two years and in that time she had passed through the looking glass that separates girls from women. Whatever it was, Mandy was beautiful and I couldn't stop staring.
This was a calculated thing for us because the book's theme is partly about the two men whose lives spiral out of control and the fine line between violence that is driven inward and outward. (And yes, we mixed first and third POV but that's a different post for another day.)

Two last thoughts about building bridges. First, transitions are just a tool, a part of your writer's technique, and as such you can learn to use them with flair and confidence. Study writers you admire. Go grab a book and open to the blank spots between chapters. Then analyze how the writer has moved through time and space, how he has bridged the gaps between his chapters. You'll find that most of the time, the best writers adhere to the golden rule: KISS. They keep it simple, stupid. Which leads me to my last thought:

 Don't over-think this. Resist the urge to build this:


When all you need is this:

Your first job as storyteller is to just keep the reader moving between your islands. You don't want them to stop and admire turrets, filigree and gargoyles. More often than not, a sturdy little span is the best way across.

28 comments:

  1. This advice is extremely helpful, Kris! I especially appreciate the way you've used examples from books to illustrate each type of transition. And the notion that writing is fundamentally a process of building islands with connecting bridges is brilliant. I'm going to print out your picture of the Keys and pin it to my corkboard, as a reminder not to overthink things. I'm also going to give myself permission to insert more "placeholders" for transitions and scene elements, to avoid getting bogged down.

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    1. I was trying really hard to finish a chapter last night Kathryn and nothing was coming for a good ending. Everything I wrote was forced and awful. Finally, I gave up....like you said, you have to give yourself permission to not get it right on the first go.

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  2. I like bridges too, Kris. I use the suspension bridge (e.g., the Golden Gate) to illustrate structure, and also the idea of going from one signpost scene to another.

    If you build it, they will read.

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    1. James: They say that the guys who paint the Golden Gate bridge start at one end and by the time they finish, it is already time to go back and start over again. What metaphor is there in that for writers? Maybe that you can never really stop?

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  3. Interesting post. I've never really thought about how I change from scene to scene, or chapter to chapter. I'll have to go check that out.

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    1. Maybe this is something that I struggle with and perhaps others do not? I dunno!

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  4. Great advice and I love viewing transitions as bridges between islands:) I have a tendency to fall into trying to build London Bridge as opposed to a nice simple wooden structure. Currently I am working on using three different POVs and transitions between these are critical - so good timing for this post!

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    1. Clare: Same here on the London Bridge thing. The chapter I struggled to end last night I was trying WAY to hard to impress. I just went and read it and yikes, the ending stinks. But that is what the new day -- and rewrites -- are for!

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  5. What a great writing class this morning! Thank you for the great detail and concrete examples. I'm copying this post and saving it in my notes. This will be a great resource for NaNoWriMo.

    Given the great teaching and wisdom shared here at TKZ, I have no excuse for not succeeding! :)

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    1. My pleasure Diane. This post came out of a workshop Kelly and I gave at SleuthFest years ago....those are Kelly's photoshopped pix I used!

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  6. Great class on transitions, Kris. Wonderful examples. And thanks for mentioning THE PHOENIX APOSTLES. We did some serious globe trotting in that one.

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    1. Joe, I was going to email you beforehand but this post ran so long I had to cut it. Was wondering if you knew from the get-go that you guys had to use tags with each chapter or was that a later adjustment? I have trouble with time tags myself...can't seem to use them gracefully.

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    2. Kris, we knew from the start that we had to use tags with each chapter because our outline showed us all over the road both in location and time. Same thing with our latest, THE BLADE. Lynn and I have also made it a point to title each chapter as if it were a mini-book. The title doesn't give the chapter away, but once you're finished with it, you understand the title. With our WIP, THE SHIELD, we are again jumping in location and time so the technique continues to be a tool for us and the reader.

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  7. Excellent post! I'm saving this one.

    One thing I've noticed as a reader is that if a transition is too clever, I notice it and appreciate the writing. This takes me out of the story for a moment. I think that's fine if it's momentary, but I prefer to be lost in the story rather than be reminded the writer is talented.

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    1. Eric, that is an interesting point you make. Is it okay to be taking out of the story momentarily to appreciate the pure writing (ie admire the gargoyles?) Or is it better for the writer to get out of the way of the story? There's a happy medium, perhaps?

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  8. Excellent post. I like the bridge building metaphor very much. I also try to use it as a way you can cross over a lot of action that is not needed. The blank space between the chapters can cover a lot of territory.

    I went back and looked at my last chapter transition. The end of one boils down to

    "C'mon, let's go see your dad in jail."
    ::insert blank space chapter break::
    I took the lead at North Tower security because I'd spent a lot more time than than Gerald.

    Eliminated are elevator rides, finding the car, getting stuck in traffic, finding parking, and making their way to the right building.

    Let's go ---- (chapter) ----> We're there.

    Another post for my writing binder. Thanks! Terri

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    1. Terri: Exactly! I didn't even go into the use of that double-space tool amid a chapter that we all use. It can elide a lot of unnecessary action. Recently, in my critique group, my fellow writers told me I had come into a scene TOO LATE. Meaning, I had left out too much in the bridge. They were right...I went back and corrected it.

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    2. Oops, luckily it was all still there, in the rest stop trash can where you'd left it.

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  9. PJ: This post is wonderfully practical and timely for me. I've written my manuscript in scenes and now, during my fourth draft, I'm building transitions. Thank you.

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  10. Dontmentionit, Marbles! Good luck in revisions. I wish I was there...it's the part I enjoy most.

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  11. Oh, this blog's terrific, THANKS for this post. I'm struggling with transitions right now, your helpful insights sure came in handy.

    FYI, my bridge looks like an Indiana Jones death trap, one of those frayed and unraveling rope bridges. Think of Donkey walking across that planked thing with Shrek, and yep, that's my bridge. LOL.

    As Donkey once said, (and beautifully applies to writing) -- "I just know, before this is over, I'm gonna need a whole lot of serious therapy. Look at my eye twitchin.'"

    Thanks again, this is such a great blog to follow.

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    1. ROFLOL! Now I have this vision in my head, Cheryl, of Indiana swinging on that rope to get across the abyss. Thanks...just what I need as I open Chapter 7. :)

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  12. Great lesson! I appreciate the considerable effort.

    Perhaps sometime comments on transitions into and out of flashbacks? I think the transitions can make or break them (I recognize some feel they are to be avoided ).

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  13. Tom: That's a good idea for a future post. Handling flashbacks (and their cousin backstory) is one of the hardest things we all grapple with. (I am dealing with it right now). I am putting that in my idea folder for future.

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  14. Great and valuable lesson. Thank you. The scene islands concept is one I think will stick with me. And all the various ways one can get from one island to the next.

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  15. Excellent advice, PJ! And so well expressed, with all those great examples to illustrate each type of transition! Thanks for this -- I'll be sending my clients to read your words of wisdom.

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  16. Thanx Jodie and Lance. It was fun going thru my bookshelf to find examples from my fave writers.

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  17. Yes, poor transition can be like falling down stairs in the dark. Unless doing that to a reader is intentional. To me, moving through a doorway and falling off the planet is a surefire story killer.

    "And yes, we mixed first and third POV but that's a different post for another day."
    --- Yes it is Kris, and I look forward to hearing about it. I've always thought of that as a walk on thin ice. [Used to say that growing up in Michigan all the time.]

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